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Chapter 11: Leadership and crime reduction

Abstract

This chapter completes the book with a discussion of leadership and crime management. It begins with a brief overview of Adair's action-centred model of leadership, and transactional and transformational leadership. These are explained as a continuum that leaders act within. The chapter also discusses the value in not just managing up, but also across and down, where good leaders seek to understand what motivates stakeholders in their own, and other, organizations. Issues of delegation and mentoring feature. A critique of Compstat features in the second part of the chapter, prefacing a suggestion for a better model, based on the U.K. National Intelligence Model. A section on making change happen including avoiding being a policy weathervane, not killing all of the cubs, and avoiding innovation-killing phrases. The chapter concludes with some thoughts on being resilient, continuing to learn, and how leaders can make a contribution to the wider profession. A bullet point summary concludes the chapter. 

Headings and sub-headings

A brief primer on leadership
Managing up
Managing across and down
Rethink management meetings
Making area change happen
Managing yourself
Parting words
Chapter summary

Additional links

The British Library has a nice summary of John Adair's life and work philosophy

 You can listen to a Reducing Crime interview with Police Chief Tom Nestel of SEPTA transit police over at the Reducing Crime podcast page. 

A systematic literature review of police leaders and leadership development was published in 2013 by Mitchell Pearson-Goff and Victoria Herrington of the Australian Institute of Police Management. It's a four-page pdf. 

Since his retirement from the Police Scotland in 2013, Dave Stewart continues to work with the Scottish Institute for Policing Research

According to Wikipedia, "Machiavellianism is one of the dark triad personalities, characterized by a duplicitous interpersonal style, a cynical disregard for morality, and a focus on self-interest and personal gain". Fortunately there isn't anyone in policing like this. 

Vignette author Julio César Marroquín Vides has had a distinguished career with El Salvador's National Civil Police since its formation in 1994, most recently being in charge of professional responsibility. An extensive background to the history of the PNC is available in English from Woods, Skelton and Ponce. 

You can read more about the Halifax Regional Police leadership team (Canada), including vignette author Don Moser, here

In the book, I argue that Compstat has to change; however a more positive view is available from BJA. 

Figure 11.3 has a graphic that suggests quarterly strategic and monthly tactical meetings, but that is not the only option. You could also choose monthly strategic and weekly tactical meetings - see alternative figure below. The point is to have both strategic and tactical tasking and coordination sessions. 

Procedural justice and police legitimacy are hot topics in policing right now. Extensive websites already exist on these topics, such as (for example), the COPS Office, and the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy

Assistant Chief Constable Alex (Al) Murray was recently awarded an OBE by the Queen for his work in evidence-based policing.

For police, good advice on personal resilience and well-being can be found at the College of Policing and the International Association of Chiefs of Police

A deeper dive

If you want a deeper dive into decision making, then scroll through the many resources available at the Ultimate Guide to Making Smart Decisions.

Figures

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Alternative to figure 11.3 (not in the book)

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Vignette authors

Julio César Marroquín Vides

Julio César Marroquín Vides is a commissioner (comisionado) in El Salvador’s National Civil Police (PNC) currently supervising a national intelligence-led policing project.

Don Moser

Inspector Moser is the Operational Planning Officer for Halifax Regional Police (Canada). He began his policing career in 1992, holding various roles within and outside HRP during his tenure. He has worked in both the Patrol and Criminal Investigation Division as a constable and as a supervisor. He worked in professional standards prior to becoming the first seconded Halifax Regional Police officer to Nova Scotia’s Serious Incident Response Team (SiRT), during which he assisted in establishing the independent police oversight body and served as an investigator. Prior to his appointment as the Operational Planning Officer, Inspector Moser served as HRP’s Divisional Commander of East Division. 
He has been awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal, the Police Exemplary Service Medal, the NS Police Long Service Medal, and is a co-recipient of the Halifax Regional Police Investigator of the Year Award. You can follow Don Moser on twitter at @InspDonMoser

Al Murray

Temporary Assistant Chief Constable Alex Murray is responsible for crime investigation in the West Midlands, UK. He has experience in homicide counter terrorism and local policing. His Master’s degree thesis at Cambridge University developed the understanding of police legitimacy within Muslim communities. He is passionate about the police being evidence based and founded the Society for Evidence Based Policing. In 2014 he received the Superintendents award for Excellence in Policing and has been recognised by George Mason University’s Centre for Evidence Based Policing. In 2017 he was awarded an OBE for services to policing.

You can follow Al Murray on twitter at @ACCMurray

Chapter-related review questions

Chapter 11: A leader that can change approach to meet various demands and needs is what type of leader?
A.    A charismatic leader
B.    A situational leader
C.    An appointed leader
D.    A functional leader
 
Chapter 11: What type of leader has a certain force of personality—though there is little evidence that they are naturally a good leader?
A.    A charismatic leader
B.    A situational leader
C.    An appointed leader
D.    A functional leader
 
Chapter 11: Which of the following is NOT a component of action-centered leadership?
A.    Task needs
B.    Organizational needs
C.    Team/group needs
D.    Individual needs
 
Chapter 11: According to Police Chief Tom Nestel, what is the most influential tool in policing?
A.    The service weapon
B.    The roll call podium
C.    Standing orders
D.    Good procedures
 
Chapter 11: A day-to-day manager who set goals and use rewards and feedback to drive productivity, is a description of?
A.    A transactional leader
B.    A transformational leader
C.    An authentic leader
D.    A charismatic leader
 
Chapter 11: Showing genuine concern, being honest and consistent, and acting with integrity are all characteristics associated with what type of leader?
A.    A transactional leader
B.    A transformational leader
C.    An authentic leader
D.    A charismatic leader
 
Chapter 11: When you encounter resistance from people in other organizations, their resistance may be caused by 'symbolic fears'. This means what?
A.    Have an unwillingness to step out of a comfort zone
B.    Worry that change will cause emotional stress and anxiety
C.    Worry that they will not be able to do the new requirements
D.    Have a concern that they will lose status or power
 
Chapter 11: When you encounter resistance from people in other organizations, their resistance may be caused by 'competence fears'. This means what?
A.    Have an unwillingness to step out of a comfort zone
B.    Worry that change will cause emotional stress and anxiety
C.    Worry that they will not be able to do the new requirements
D.    Have a concern that they will lose status or power
 
Chapter 11: What is NOT a benefit of delegation as a leader?
A.    You can manage your stress levels
B.    You can delegate accountability
C.    You can develop your team
D.    You can tap into expertise you don’t have
 
Chapter 11: According to the author, which of the following is NOT a problem associated with how Compstat is conducted in most agencies?
A.    Opinion-driven strategies
B.    Weak analysis
C.    Overly complicated analysis
D.    Rushed decision-making
 
Chapter 11: To avoid the problem of a new commander "killing all of the cubs", what is suggested?
A.    Employ data-driven change
B.    Make changes before you take over command
C.    Explain clearly to staff any emotion-driven changes you make
D.    Change will always be misinterpreted and cannot be avoided
 
Chapter 11: Police legitimacy is the belief that police are entitled to operate in a community and use their authority to do three activities Which of these is NOT one of the three?
A.    Solve problems
B.    Preserve social order
C.    Resolve conflicts
D.    Reform communities
 
Chapter 11: Which of the following is NOT a component of procedural justice?
A.    Demonstrating efficiency
B.    Treating people with dignity and respect
C.    Acting neutrally
D.    Giving the public a voice
 
Chapter 11: What is the term for the cognitive bias that fools us into thinking we have complete control as to how a situation will unfold?
A.    Thinking bias
B.    Control euphoria
C.    The illusion of control
D.    The illusion bias

Select another chapter: Chp 1  |  Chp 2  |  Chp 3  |  Chp 4  |  Chp 5  |  Chp 6  |  Chp 7  |  Chp 8  |  Chp 9  |  Chp 10  |  Chp 11