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Chapter 2: The PANDA crime reduction model


This short chapter introduces the PANDA model and explains (through a medical analogy) how it differs from traditional policing practice with regard to crime fighting. The need for the model is explained and then the chapter explains why checklists and memory aids are used throughout the book and the PANDA model. A brief introduction to the model then follows. Because it has its origins in the 3-i intelligence-led policing and the SARA problem-solving models, it can be applied to a wide range of problems, and not just crime and disorder issues. The PANDA model is articulated in greater detail in the chapters that follow, but for now the chapter concludes with a graphic of the model and a bullet point summary of the key points.

Headings and sub-headings

A framework for crime reduction
Checklists and memory aids
The role of PANDA in your job
Chapter summary

Additional links


Checklists are growing across policing. In particular, the UK's College of Policing has a range of checklists that are part of their Authorized Professional Practice initiative. Under major investigation and public protection, there are a number of quick access checklists for the investigation of domestic violence and abuse

In the US, the Council of State Government's Justice Center (funded by BJA) has a short (2-page) guide for law enforcement leaders who are working in police-mental health collaborations. They also have checklists for partner organizations that you might work with. 

The Department of Justice (US) Community Relations Service has a resource center with a number of guides covering different areas, including when you are responding to a critical incident that has the potential to result in controversy or conflict involving the police and a community. The Police Critical Incident checklist has a number of useful suggestions. 

The best overall read is Atul Gawande's 2011 book The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right. A recent New York Times piece does, however, suggest that context is vital and checklists are not guaranteed to be successful

Crime models

The SARA model (Scanning, Analysis, Response and Assessment) of problem-oriented policing is probably the most well-known model in policing. Each of the SARA steps has a number of elements shares origins and similarities to the PANDA model in the Reducing Crime book. While the concept of problem-oriented policing originates with Herman Goldstein, the SARA model was designed by John Eck and William Spelman in 1987 in their publication titled 'Problem-Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News' (abstract | full pdf).

Another model that you might want to review is the 5is model from Paul Ekblom

The 3i intelligence-led policing (ILP) model originates from a 2003 publication on ILP from the Australian Institute of Criminology, but the most commonly cited sources are the two editions of Ratcliffe's ILP book, the most recent being the second edition published in 2016

Jim Bueermann is currently the president of the Police Foundation in Washington, D.C. and was the police chief in Redlands, California (U.S.) for over a decade (where he still resides). See his more extensive bio below under vignette authors.  


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Vignette authors

Stuart Greer

Stuart Greer is a Lieutenant with the Morristown (NJ) Police Department (USA) where he serves as the Executive Officer of the Support Services Division. In this role, he oversees Criminal Investigations, Property & Evidence, Police Records, and the Public Information office. Lt. Greer is a founding member of the American Society of Evidence-Based Policing, a Fellow at the Police Foundation, and a LEADS Scholar at the National Institute of Justice.  He is a New Jersey Police Training Commission certified instructor teaching recruit and in-service training classes and has traveled extensively teaching evidence-based approaches to reducing homicide and violent crimes to police commanders across the United States.
Lt. Greer received a Master of Studies in Applied Criminology from the University of Cambridge and a Master of Public Administration from the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University. You can follow Lt. Greer on twitter at @Stu_Greer

Jim Bueermann

Jim Bueermann is the president of the National Police Foundation. Before that, Jim worked for the Redlands Police Department (California, USA) for 33 years, serving in every unit within the department. He was appointed chief of police in 1998. He retired in June 2011. As chief, he developed a holistic approach to community policing and problem solving that consolidated housing and recreation services into the police department and was based on risk and protective factor research into adolescent problem prevention. He was the first police chief to be inducted as an honorary fellow in the Academy of Experimental Criminology and into the halls of fame at George Mason University’s Center for Evidence Based Crime Policy and the School of Behavioral Science at California State University, San Bernardino. He is on policing advisory boards at Cambridge University and George Mason University and works extensively in the field of evidence-based policing and innovative technologies in policing. 

Chapter-related review questions

Chapter 2: Memory aids and acronyms are a manageable or memorable set of ordered tasks. The primary purpose of the aids is what?
A.    Increase compliance
B.    Reduce complexity
C.    Drive conformity
D.    Reduce innovation
Chapter 2: The P in PANDA stands for what?
A.    Police
B.    Problem
C.    Place
D.    Proactive
Chapter 2: The P in PANDA can also stand for what?
A.    Problem scan
B.    Place analysis
C.    Proactive policing
D.    Police analysis
Chapter 2: The first A in PANDA stands for what?
A.    Analyze
B.    Assess
C.    Administer
D.    Address
Chapter 2: The first A in PANDA can also stand for what?
A.    Address crime problem
B.    Assess outcome
C.    Analyze problem
D.    Administer solution
Chapter 2: The N in PANDA stands for what?
A.    Negate
B.    Name
C.    Nominate
D.    Nurture
Chapter 2: The N in PANDA can also stand for what?
A.    Nominate strategy
B.    Nurture community
C.    Name solution
D.    Negate issue
Chapter 2: The D in PANDA stands for what?
A.    Document
B.    Discuss
C.    Distribute
D.    Deploy
Chapter 2: The D in PANDA can also stand for what?
A.    Discuss approaches
B.    Document strategy
C.    Deploy strategy
D.    Distribute resources
Chapter 2: The second A in PANDA stands for what?
A.    Analyze
B.    Assess
C.    Administer
D.    Address
Chapter 2: The second A in PANDA can also stand for what?
A.    Address crime problem
B.    Analyze problem
C.    Assess outcome
D.    Administer solution
Chapter 2: A "command-driven, problem solving model for crime, harm and disorder concerns" is a description in the book of what model?
A.    SARA model
B.    3-i model
C.    4-i model
D.    PANDA model
Chapter 2: According to the vignette from Jim Bueermann, as a new area commander you should develop a 'healthy aversion to being" where?
A.    Your office
B.    Community meetings
C.    Patrol cars
D.    The chief's office

Select another chapter: Chp 1  |  Chp 2  |  Chp 3  |  Chp 4  |  Chp 5  |  Chp 6  |  Chp 7  |  Chp 8  |  Chp 9  |  Chp 10  |  Chp 11

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